Components in equipment used in mining and opencast mining (bucket wheel excavators for example) are subject to places extreme stress. Bucket wheel excavators are among the largest and most spectacular excavators in the world, and can achieve ❑ daily output of 240,000 cubic meters. The driver swivels the top carriage left or right in an angle from 45 to 90 degrees; as he does so the bucket wheel turns either clockwise or anticlockwise, picking up soil or coal in the process. The material is then carried upwards through 180 degrees until it reaches the wear rails (a 45-degree ramp / slide in the bucket wheel discharge chute). The material is then gravity-fed onto the conveyor, which transports it to the lower carriage. From there it drops a few meters further onto a second conveyer belt which leads to the loader.